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HOME <  托福 <  托福阅读的出题形式 
 
 
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托福阅读的出题形式
2020-01-06 15:07:34  来源:网络
托福阅读的出题形式全部都是选择题,而选择题相比于其他题型最大的特点就是在提供正确选项的同时,还会有多个错误选项在旁边混淆视听,伺机而动,随时准备把你拖入陷阱之中。作为考生,不仅要了解题目的正确做法,也要有意识地总结出托福出题人设计错误选项的套路。今天新航道王佳俊老就在这里跟大家分享一个常见错误选项的错误设计思路。首先我们来看一道题:

In order for the structure to achieve the size and strength necessary to meet its purpose, architecture employs methods of support that, because they are based on physical laws, have changed little since people first discovered them—even while building materials have changed dramatically.

4. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.


○Unchanging physical laws have limited the size and strength of buildings that can be made with materials discovered long ago.

○Building materials have changed in order to increase architectural size and strength, but physical laws of structure have not changed.

○When people first started to build, the structural methods used to provide strength and size were inadequate because they were not based on physical laws.

○Unlike building materials, the methods of support used in architecture have not changed over time because they are based on physical laws.

显然这是一个简化题,正确的做法应该是根据原句的逻辑关系,判断出主要信息是methods have changed little,然后选项中只有D体现了这个重点,不过我们这里并不打算讲解正确选项,而是要反过来看看错误选项是怎样设计的。

A选项中,赫然提到了“physical law”以及方向词“unchanging”,都是原句提到的信息,但是实际上两者并没有直接的修饰关系。原句中,because they are based on physical laws是插入语,这里的插入语打断了原本在一起的主语和谓语,插入语的处理办法应该是先跳过,先看出主句结构,最后再把插入语放回去理解。把插入语暂时去掉之后,architecture employs methods of support that have changed little…很明显changed little的主语是methods,而不是physical law。请看一个类似的句子,In my opinion, this book is good.这句话可以改成this book, in my opinion, is very good.虽然in my opinion的位置放到了句子中间,但是is的主语依然是this book而不是距离最近的opinion,这就是英文的语法规矩。同样的原理,我们把题目中的插入句放回去,physical laws后面紧跟的就是changed little,之间只有一个逗号,猛地一看就好像physical laws成了changed little的主语。这样的设计就是为了蒙骗那种对英语表达结构不熟悉(尤其是打断句子的插入语的处理办法),只知道按顺序一个字一个字翻译的同学的。而像是插入语,定语从句,分词作后置定语的这样的英文语法现象在现代汉语中几乎看不到,所以也就成了中国学生的软肋。

再看B选项,后半句再次出现了physical laws of structure have not changed. 跟A错的一模一样,可见托福出题人是多么喜欢这种类型的错误!

甚至在同一篇文章中,我们都可以看到类似的设计理念。

【Paragraph 4】Even development in architecture has been the result of major technological changes. Materials and methods of construction are integral parts of the design of architecture structures. In earlier times it was necessary to design structural systems suitable for the materials that were available, such as wood, stone, brick. Today technology has progressed to the point where it is possible to invent new building materials to suit the type of structure desired. Enormous changes in materials and techniques of construction within the last few generations have made it possible to enclose space with much greater ease and speed and with a minimum of material. Progress in this area can be measured by the difference in weight between buildings built now and those of comparable size built one hundred years ago.

7. According to paragraph 4, which of the following is true about materials used in the construction of buildings?

○Because new building materials are hard to find, construction techniques have changed very little from past generations.

○The availability of suitable building materials no longer limits the types of structures that may be built.

○The primary building materials that are available today are wood, stone, and brick.

○Architects in earlier times did not have enough building materials to enclose large spaces.

我们直接关注C选项,其中的“today”以及“wood, stone, and brick”都是原文确实出现过的信息,然而原文两者之间隔了一个句号,根本就是两个句子。Wood, stone, and brick是在描述以前的建筑材料(从所在句可知),today描述的是当代建筑材料。所以两者虽然距离很近,但是时间范围完全不一样。

以上我们见到的都是“离得近但是实际上没有直接修饰关系”的情况,反过来“离得远却有直接关系”也是出题人迷惑我们的一个思路。比如说TPO15 A Warm-Blooded Turtle第四题

【Paragraph 2】A warm-blooded turtle may seem to be a contradiction in terms. Nonetheless, an adult leatherback can maintain a body temperature of between 25 and 26°C (77-79°F) in seawater that is only 8°C (46.4°F). Accomplishing this feat requires adaptations both to generate heat in the turtle’s body and to keep it from escaping into the surrounding waters. Leatherbacks apparently do not generate internal heat the way we do, or the way birds do, as a by-product of cellular metabolism. A leatherback may be able to pick up some body heat by basking at the surface; its dark, almost black body color may help it to absorb solar radiation. However, most of its internal heat comes from the action of its muscles.

4. Paragraph 2 mentions all of the following as true about the body heat of adult leatherback turtles EXCEPT:

○Their muscles produce heat for maintaining body temperature.

○Their dark bodies help trap solar radiation.

○Their cellular metabolism produces heat as a by-product.

○Basking at the water’s surface helps them obtain heat.

C选项中提到的cellular metabolism…by-product 都是原文确实提到的信息,句子的主语也确实是leatherbacks,但是实际上在两者中间,举例cellular metabolilsm很远的位置有一个do not,也就是说leatherbacks不会像人类和鸟一样产生cellular metabolism的by-product。然而在否定词not和修饰对象by-product之间,“恰好”出现了一段不小的信息,generate internal heat the way we do, or the way birds do,似乎试图在营造一个假象就是by-product是产生的。同样,这里我们又见到了双逗号之间的插入语。

是时候总结出套路了,以上三个题都很容易因为只看一个句子的局部信息而出现误判。所以我们的应对策略也非常简单,就是不要想当然的认为离得近的就一定有直接修饰关系,而离的远的也不一定没有关系,一定要把句子从头读到尾,依据英文语法规则判断出句子主干以及修饰成分,然后再根据做题需要进行翻译理解。我们再做题的时候也要留心警惕插入语或其他定语后置,打乱句子结构的存在,这种地方都有可能藏着陷阱。
 
 
 
 
 
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